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How Vortex Mixer Works in Biology Laboratory

The equipment contained in a biology laboratory is certainly different from the equipment in a physical or chemical laboratory. In biology laboratories, glass-based equipment such as beaker glass, measuring cups to pipettes and test tubes will usually be found. One of the most effective and common tools is vortex mixer or vortexer, which is a tool that can be used to mix liquids in small scale to be homogeneous.

This Vortex Mixer was created by Jack A. Kraft and Harold D. Kraft who are employees of Scientific Industries, one of the world’s laboratory equipment manufacturers. They filed a patent for this tool in 1959. The innovations created by the Kraft brothers are very beneficial to the biochemical world and are even still used today. Another option for vortex mixers is finger vortex. Unlike vortex mixers that run automatically, finger vortex is done manually by covering the tube with the thumb.

The tube is closed with the thumb and then moved up and down repeatedly. Usually finger vortex can be done for a simple mixing procedure. Then, how do vortex mixers work in biology laboratories? Check out the following review.

Vortex Mixer in Biology Laboratory

In biology laboratories, this tool is usually used to mix cells in the cell culture process. In addition, a vortex mixer can also be used to mix enzymes, buffers and substrates and test enzyme reagents before incubating in a water bath. Waterbath is a container filled with water that is used to maintain temperatures in certain conditions and in certain periods. This tool can also be used to mix several compounds to be sampled before the experiment.

This Vortex Mixer is used to process a number of compounds or liquids in small and limited volumes because of their shape which can only hold small tubes. Examples of tubes that can be used in the vortex mixer process are centrifugal tubes,Eppendorf MixMate, falkon and test tubes. Meanwhile, the main components of this tool are the engine motor and drive shaft.

Inside this tool there is a small rubber band attached to the machine to shake the sample. There is also a drive shaft which will move vertically if the engine is turned on. In addition, the rubber hook will later rotate quickly so that the tube attached to the top will be thoroughly shaken and cause a vortex to coalesce.

Vortex Mixer Parts

The vortex head which is the main part is used to place the sample. On top of that, there are adapters that can be removed and adjusted to the size of the tube container that will be used. Tubes used in general are micro tubes of various sizes. The next part is the tool body. There is a power button and speed control knob on the body of this tool. There is also a type of vortex mixer that has a vibration timer that can be adjusted according to the sample material so that the results obtained are more optimal. Then, the lower part of the supporting foot is a useful tool to support the body of the vortex mixer. This supporting foot is resistant to vibration and is able to stabilize the vortex mixer.

Type of Vortex Mixer

In addition to regular vortex mixers, there are also vortex mixers that feature infrared sensors. This sensor can detect movements automatically. You don’t need to bother pressing the tool to activate homogenization of the sample. There are also other types of vortex mixers, micro mixers, which can be used to mix small-scale solutions in an e-tube.

How to use Vortex Mixer

Turn on the vortex mixer by moving the switch to the on position. Insert the container containing the sample to be mixed into the vortex and place it in the appropriate position on the rubber band while holding the tube during the process. The tube used is usually a micro centrifugal tube or test tube.

Then, adjust the speed of the vortex by turning the black knob according to the instructions found on the vortex mixer machine. If the trial sample does not rotate, it means that the mixing process is complete. Return the knob to its original position, turn off the vortex engine and remove it from the flow of electric current.

That’s how vortex mixers work in biology laboratories. This tool is one of the most important tools and is a very useful innovation for various fields of science, especially in biochemistry.

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The Vortex Mixer Part that Must Be Known

Real community life requires a variety of tools, objects, or items that are useful for carrying out daily activities. To be able to get the right object, of course, can be fulfilled well by a variety of existing industries. But on its way, there must be research done before it can create the right object. One of them is through research in the laboratory.

Laboratories usually have a variety of tools that are useful to support the research process. If there are no such tools, of course the results you want to get will be difficult to create. One of the tools that is usually in a laboratory is a vortex mixer. For those who don’t know what a vortex mixer is, this tool is used to mix liquids in small containers. In addition, the function of the vortex mixer can be to mix homogeneous liquids in test tubes, can to mix experimental samples with thawing, can also get rid of cells that are not needed, and can produce maximum mixing at the same time as a whole in a (homogeneous) solution.

As a laboratory tool, of course there are various kinds of vortex mixer parts, each of which has its own uses. This part of vortex mixer must also be known by you so you can know the usefulness of each part. Moreover, the existence of a vortex mixer in the laboratory is an important part.

What parts of vortex mixer are there? Here is the full review.

Rubber Cup

The first part of the vortex mixer is the rubber cup. As the name implies, a rubber cup is a depression cup that is used to support the bottom of the test tube from a vortex mixer. The number of rubber cups in a vortex mixer is usually one, but can also be more than one according to the size and use of the vortex mixer.

Motion Mode

In addition to the rubber cup, there is also a motion mode as one part of the vortex mixer. As a device that uses electricity in turning it on, the vortex mixer has a motion mode button. When the button is pressed, the vortex mixer starts to move at the bottom of the tube. That movement will form a gyratory or circular motion. With this gyratory movement, it will produce a complete mixing of the (homogeneous) solution.

Speed ​​Control Knob

Furthermore, there is also a speed control knob. The main use of the speed control knob is to adjust and control the rotation speed as well as the movement of the vortex mixer. Of course, in the use of vortex mixers, there are different speeds, depending on the uses needed at the time. With this speed control knob, the mixer speed can be adjusted in such a way.

Also Read: How Does the Vortex Mixer Work Principle?

Of the three parts of the vortex mixer above, none of them should escape in this tool. If one of these parts is not present, then the vortex mixer will not work perfectly and optimally. Moreover, in its use in the laboratory, vortex mixer becomes an important part that cannot be eliminated in the research process. Its main use in mixing liquids which are later used in research, becomes a very important thing. If there is no vortex mixer in the laboratory, the research process can fail and cannot obtain the desired results. For this reason, there must be a vortex mixer in every laboratory. Hopefully this information about vortex mixer can be useful for you.

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How Does the Vortex Mixer Work Principle?

In every biochemistry laboratory, of course there are various kinds of instruments or tools for stirring, mixing or shaking compounds with their strengths and strengths. One effective and common tool is the vortex mixer or vortexer, which is a tool that can be used to mix liquids in small quantities. This Vortex Mixer was created by Jack A. Kraft and Harold D. Kraft who are employees of Scientific Industries, one of the world’s laboratory equipment manufacturers.

They patented this device in 1962. The innovations created by the Kraft brothers are very beneficial to the biochemical world and are even still used today. In cell culture and microbiology laboratories, this tool is commonly used to separate cells. Meanwhile, in biochemical or analytical chemistry laboratories, this tool is commonly used to mix dilutan compounds and make sample mixes.

Another alternative to vortex mixers is finger vortex. Unlike vortex mixers that run automatically, finger vortex is done manually by covering the tube with the thumb. The tube is closed with the fingers and moved up and down repeatedly. Usually a finger vortex will be performed for a simple manual mixing procedure. Then, how do vortex mixers work? Check out the following review.

The working principle of Vortex Mixer

Vortex Mixer is generally used in the process of homogenizing a liquid. However, the amount of volume that can be processed is quite small when compared with other homogeneous mixing devices. This is because vortex mixers can only hold small tubes such as centrifugal tubes, falcon, eppendorf, test tubes and other small tubes. The components of this tool are the engine motor and the drive shaft.

Also Read: How Vortex Mixer Works in Biology Laboratories

This drive bar will move vertically when the engine is started. There is a small rubber attached to the machine to carry the sample to be mixed. This rubber will then move around very quickly and in line with the engine and the driving shaft. This repetitive motion will cause a vortex in the sample solution and mix all the compounds in it until they fuse.

Vortex Mixer Parts

The first part, the vortex head, is used to place the sample. There are many kinds of adapters that can be used and adapted to the size of the tube container that will be used. Tubes used in general are micro tubes of various sizes.

The second part is the tool body. On the body of the tool, there is a power button and speed control knob. There is a type of vortex mixer that has a vibration timer that can be adjusted according to the sample material so that the results obtained are more optimal. The third part is the supporting leg which is used to support the body of the vortex mixer. This leg part is resistant to vibration and is able to stabilize the vortex mixer.

How to use Vortex Mixer

Turn on the vortex mixer by moving the switch to the ON position. Insert the container containing the sample to be mixed into the vortex and place it in the appropriate position on the rubber band while holding the tube during the process. The tube used is usually a micro centrifugal tube or test tube.

Then, adjust the speed of the vortex by turning the black knob according to the instructions found on the vortex mixer machine. If the trial sample does not rotate, it means that the mixing process is complete. Return the knob to its original position, turn off the vortex engine and remove it from the flow of electric current.

Type of Vortex Mixer

In addition to regular vortex mixers, there are also vortex mixers that feature infrared sensors. This sensor can detect movements automatically. You don’t need to bother pressing the tool to activate homogenization of the sample. There are also other types of vortex mixers, micro mixers, which can be used to mix small-scale solutions in an e-tube.

Vortex Mixer function

This Vortex Mixer can be found in all biochemical laboratories. Usually, this tool will be used to shake the enzyme and test the enzyme reagent activity. The procedure is by inserting a buffer, substrate and enzymes and then mixed into one before incubation at Waterbath.

That’s the vortex mixer review which is the most important tool in every laboratory. This tool, which is a product of the Kraft brothers, is a very useful innovation for the biochemistry world today.

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Centrifugation tools and their types

Centrifugation is the process of separating fluid particles or separating components of cells, organelles and molecules. Separation of these components is carried out in reference to differences in density. Tools to separate these components are usually called centrifugation devices and are arranged on the rotor and the rotating device in the form of a motor that can rotate the rotor at a certain speed. There is a hole in the surface of this rotor that is used to place a tube container containing a sample that will be tested later.

This centrifugation procedure utilizes the centrifugation force, which is the opposite of the centrifugal force in physics. This force is the apparent effect that will appear when an object moves away from the central axis of rotation in a circle. In general, centrifugation techniques are used to separate liquids consisting of emulsified compounds. For example, biochemical processes such as the separation of blood molecules, the separation of macromolecules and colloids from other fluids. Want to know more about centrifugation tools? Check out the review below!

Distribution of Centrifugation Equipment Based on Results

Based on the results obtained, there are two types of centrifugation devices, namely filtration centrifuge (sedimentation) and purifier (decanter and clarifier). A filtration centrifugation device is used to separate the mixture of solids and liquids with more solid volume than the liquid. The procedure for separating this device is by inserting liquid into a drum with a filter wall inside.

Centrifugal device functions to filter liquids. When the tool is used and the drum starts spinning, the liquid will come out and leave solids and settle inside the drum wall. Examples of simple centrifugation tools are sieve basket covered with filter media, namely filter cloth. This sifter basket can be rotated hydraulically or electrically.

Also Read: A Complete and Informative Explanation of Blood Centrifugation!

Meanwhile, a centrifugation filter is used to separate liquids with a small amount of insoluble deposits and have different densities (the amount of substances contained in a certain volume). The drum and rotor in the centrifuge filter will be made to the full coat. In this tool, a radial separation occurs so that light particles will be inside and heavy particles will form the outermost layer.

Type of centrifugation tool

There are four types of centrifugation devices commonly found on the market, including General Purpose, Micro Centrifuge, Specialty and High Speed. Each centrifuge has advantages and disadvantages as well as their respective goals.

General Purpose is usually designed to be placed on a table (table top) with a rotation speed of 0-3000 revolutions per minute and can hold as many as 5-100 ml samples. This tool does not have a temperature regulation system and is commonly used to separate blood cells, yeast cells or urine samples.

The next tool is a microcentrifuge which can only hold a solution with a mini size that is 0.5 to 2 ml in high-speed microtubes. The maximum rotation speed of this tool is 25000 revolutions per minute and is capable of producing up to 90000g of centrifugal force. This tool is equipped with a refrigerator or heater. This tool is used to separate microorganism cells or separate preparations resulting from chemical reactions. In addition, this tool can also be used to separate the constituent organelles, namely mitochondria, lysosomes and nuclei.

Centrifugation specialties are usually designed according to specific and specific needs such as microhematocrit centrifugation and blood bank centrifugation. Microhematocrit has similarities with microcentrifuge and is used to store small sample samples to measure the volume of hematocrit pack cells. Whereas blood bank centrifugation is used to separate serological samples.

The last type of centrifugation is high speed centrifugation which consists of 2 types, namely ultracentrifuge and refrigerator centrifugation. Ultracentrifuge usually has speeds above 50,000 revolutions per minute and is equipped with a cooling system so that the sample is maintained temperature. Meanwhile, refrigerator centrifugation has a speed of 0-20,000 revolutions per minute and is able to keep the sample temperature cool during the process.

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Types of Viscometers You Need to Know

Every solution in the world has a thickness or viscosity. This viscosity level can be measured using a device called a viscometer. Some common viscometer models are falling ball viscomometers, rotation systems and capillary tube tubes.

Rotational viscometers are generally made with two standards namely using the Searle system (the inner cylinder is silent and the outer part is rotating) and the Couette system (the outer cylinder is stationary and the inner part is rotating). Meanwhile, there are two types of rotational viscometer instruments namely Mac Michael and Stormer types. So, what are the types of viscometer that you need to know? Check out the review below.

Ostwald Viscometer

This viscometer has a working principle by measuring the flow rate of a solution. If the flow velocity of the solution is getting slower, the viscosity value will be even greater. Specifically, this viscometer measures the amount of liquid needed to pass a measuring mark on the top of the capillary tube.

This viscometer works with the principle of the Law of Poiseuille equations. This law states that a liquid flowing through a tube has a dependency and is directly proportional to the pressure drop at both ends of the tube and the radius of the tube. This law also states that the flow rate of a liquid depends on the nature of the fluid, the dimensions of the pipe and the difference at both ends of the pipe.

Cup and Bob Viscometer

In this viscometer, liquid is inserted in a room between the outer wall (bob) and the wall in the bowl (cup) which is placed snugly with the rotor. Some types of viscometer has a different way of working, there are cup and bob viscometers with rotating rotors and cup and bob viscometers with rotating bowls. One cup and bob viscometer with a rotating part of the rotor is called a viscotester with two types namely VT-03 F and VT-04 F.

High viscosity fluids can be measured with VT-03 viscotester while low viscosity fluids can be measured with VT-04 viscotester. The method of measurement on a cup and bob viscometer is to put liquid into a bowl, put the rotor on and then turn on the tool. Then, the viscosity level of the solution will appear on the scale. However, this viscometer has the disadvantage of a decrease in concentration due to a shift between the bob and the cup. This makes the substances that come out solid and form the flow of the plug.

Hoppler Viscometer

This viscometer works with the Hoppler principle based on the period of time the object falls through the liquid medium. In this viscometer, Hoppler’s law is applied by measuring the time needed for a ball to pass a certain height or distance. In addition, this viscometer also works with Stokes’ Law.

Readmore : Let’s Find Out the Working Principle of Capillary Viscometer!

Stokes’ law is that the frictional force caused by the surface of a solid body moving in a solution will be proportional to the velocity of the object to the solution. To run this viscometer, the solution will be inserted in a tube and inserted a ball. The stopwatch will be activated when the ball is above, and turned off when the ball is below, then the time between the ball falling from top to bottom is recorded.

Brookfield Viscometer

This viscometer is also referred to as a cone / plate viscometer and is the most sophisticated and practical viscometer. The measurement of this viscometer uses the measurement of the punter force of a cylindrical rotor dipped in fluid. This fluid material is placed in a container while the shaft is immersed in the fluid is moving and measuring viscosity. In addition, there is also a type of brookfield viscometer with a sample placed on a disk plate and adjusted to the position of the cone under the rotor.

The rotor is then driven with various speeds. The fluid sample is then shifted in the narrow space between the board which is stationary while the rotor rotates. Some things that affect the accuracy of this tool are sample size, tool cleanliness, type of material, and the time needed to stabilize the sample liquid before it can be read by the tool.

Those are some types of viscometer that you must know. Each viscometer has its own advantages and disadvantages. You can choose a viscometer that matches the fluid sample to which you are measuring the viscosity.